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This paper presents a comprehensive typology of the sex industry based on primary data collected between and for a UK Home Office-funded study. Typologies of the contemporary sex industry in England and Wales have tended to be limited to particular sectors or have been developed from a specific disciplinary perspective or theme e. Situated in the context of international sex industry typologies, this paper seeks to address this gap.

The data was supplemented with insights from a systematic literature search. This work aims to assist with programme and policy planning in the UK context. Our methods can assist in developing typologies in other contexts. A typology of the sex industry can be useful both to understand and distinguish different activities and to assess prevalence, by providing within which to count. This can enable the development of targeted services and policies adapted to the specificities and needs of different groups Buzdugan et al.

Some employ a mix of. For example, Harcourt and Donovanin their global typology detailed belowcombine worksite, principal mode of Adult hooker search sex outdoors clients and sexual practices. Brooks-Gordon et al. Sometimes categorisations are inconsistent across typologies, which means will not be mutually exclusive, a feature that Buzdugan et al. Belmar et al. Buzdugan et al. They devised a typology based on place of both solicitation and the sex act: brothel to brothel, home to home, street to home, street to rented room, street to lodge, street to street.

Many typologies only look at parts of the industry, for example particular types of sexual services. Or the focus is on certain groups of sellers, e. There are also typologies and categorisations of trafficking, including for sexual exploitation, developed for the UK Cooper et al. Focusing on the UK, Sanders et al. They delineate the following : Female street sex workers low income ; Female street sex workers migrant ; Female off street middle income ; Female off street high income ; Male and Transgender low income street ; Male and Transgender Occasional independent ; Male and Transgender regular independent ; Male and Transgender high income.

Pitcher abased on a range of data sources and focusing on direct sex work, identifies four : street-based sex workers; sex workers in commercial premises e. While there are also underage under 18 years individuals involved in various parts of the sex industry, who are victims of child sexual exploitation, the scope of our research and the focus of this typology is limited only to adults 18 years and older Adult hooker search sex outdoors sexual services for payment or other benefit.

The typology presented here is based on data collected from several sources. First, we looked to the literature from England and Wales, the wider UK, and beyond, to see how typologies have been organised ly and to identify existing knowledge about settings and services. This yielded 10, items, after removing duplicates. We added a further items identified via hand search of e. NGO websites and items recommended by participants through our survey, bringing the total to 10, relevant publications.

We coded the identified literature by setting or type of service using a grounded approach, using the terms used by authors themselves, and eventually consolidating terms into the most used and mutually exclusive. Some individuals identified with more than one category. Due to the potential deterrent of asking for too much personal information in a study funded by the Home Office, the agency responsible for law enforcement and immigration in England and Wales, how respondents categorised themselves was the only personal information we asked for.

However, many respondents provided demographic and other personal information in other parts of the survey. The survey asked five open-ended questions, including—of relevance here—. Responses were downloaded into and analysed using an Excel document. This long list was then analysed and clustered to form a first-cut categorisation. Similar textual analysis was conducted for responses to Q13 on personal experience.

These responses were cross-referred with the emerging to check consistency and to elaborate a description for each. Recognising that many individuals involved in the sex industry would not have responded to an online survey, we also sent questionnaires to 76 NGOs working with victims of trafficking and other vulnerable individuals to administer to their service-users or members. Again, for our follow-up questionnaires we used open-ended questions and omitted requests for demographic information, in order to be inclusive and to encourage responses. This means that we cannot present data from these diverse sources in simple numerical terms or make, for example, statements on the proportion of respondents involved in certain settings or services, or how many settings or services respondents had been involved in, as we only have information on the settings, services and experiences that respondents chose to discuss.

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In the final stage, we cross-referred the produced through reviewing the literature with those produced from the online survey and follow-up questionnaire data. Our final consolidated typology therefore documents only those settings and services identified in the literature which are also supported by the data that we collected.

We then organised extensive consultation on this draft typology.

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Fifty-five individuals from 45 organisations attended overall across the four consultations. This includes organisations primarily made up of or representing individuals currently and formerly involved in sex work and advocating for its decriminalisation, as well as organisations working with those currently and formerly in the sex industry, who seek to raise awareness about exploitation and coercion and advocate for the so-called Nordic model, which criminalises the purchase of sex and decriminalises its sale.

A first draft of the report was shared with a limited of stakeholders comprising academics, NGOs and current sex workers, for a day consultation period.

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For all data collection from individuals, including the survey, questionnaires and consultations, we provided participant information sheets detailing the research, their involvement and confidentiality, and received informed consent. Our categorisation comprises two parts. First, we identify six themes which cut across the sex industry as a whole:. The second part of our categorisation consists of thirteen Footnote 1 settings and services see Table 1 where sexual or erotic acts or sexual intimacy are exchanged for payment or other benefit or need, in England and Wales as identified through this research.

It is these thirteen settings and services which are the focus of this paper. We present Adult hooker search sex outdoors in turn, drawing primarily on data collected through our survey, questionnaires and consultations. Where literature on a setting or service was identified through our literature search, this is also noted. Therefore, the absence of literature below on a particular setting or service does not mean it has not been written about in the English or Welsh context.

From our searches, there are minimal academic studies employing ethnographic, survey or interviews concerning the English or Welsh BDSM, kink and fetish scene, although we are aware of some legal and socio-legal commentary e. Cowan Therefore most of the knowledge for this category was provided by current or recent workers who participated in our study. Our respondents indicated that roles in BDSM which includes bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, and sadism and masochismkink or fetish include professional dominant dominatrix, pro-domme, femdomme ; professional submissive pro-sub; bottom ; and professional switch who may swap roles between dominant and submissive.

Dominants are generally female and may provide services online or in-person.

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There are also male and transgender BDSM practitioners providing services to male, transgender male or female clients. Some BDSM practitioners will state clearly that they offer no intimacy, nudity or genital contact. Escorts and independent workers may also offer some BDSM practices as part of their service. Practices include spanking, humiliation, roleplay e. Many BDSM practitioners will hire a dungeon space or may establish their own.

Financial domination or findom involves role-playing financial blackmail of the client. Kink and fetish work can appear non-sexual but the client Adult hooker search sex outdoors erotic meaning into an object e. Additional specialist practices described by respondents to the online survey include shibari, ropework and session wrestlers. research in England and Wales has looked at the backgrounds and working practices of individuals working in brothel settings Pitcher ab; Sanders et al.

These have primarily focused on women in brothel settings, and on residential brothels as well as massage parlours and saunas operating as brothels. In England and Wales, a brothel is defined as more than one individual providing sexual services from a premises CPS Based primarily on our survey responses, we understand brothels as indoor premises where direct sexual services are provided for payment by more than one individual, either simultaneously or at different times.

Brothels can exist in residential flats or houses, hotels, and d and und saunas and massage parlours that also offer sexual services it is important to note that not all massage establishments and saunas offer, or allow on their premises, paid sexual services. We were also told of some nail bars functioning as brothels. Sexual services offered in brothels include direct sex acts such as penetrative vaginal or anal sex, oral sex and manual masturbation. These are sometimes combined with other services such as massage or BDSM. In managed brothels, whether in flats, parlours or saunasindividuals work shifts, ranging from e.

They may work anywhere from once per week to 7 days per week. Some managed brothels have one individual on-site selling sex at a time, others have several. Prices in managed brothels depend on the services agreed. In addition to static managed brothels as described above, in some cases escort agencies or individuals rent out flats to sex workers, and organise clients for them.

These women are sometimes advertised on adult services websites Skidmore In collaborative brothels, individuals selling sex share a flat or house with others selling sex, either concurrently or at different times, taking in-calls as escorts.

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In some cases, individuals tour together, renting premises temporarily. Individuals in collaborative brothels usually organise their own advertising and bookings, or they may employ someone else to do so. As recent research notes, in some cases one sex worker takes on an administrative role and charges other workers a fee for rent and other costs, which can blur the lines between managed and collaborative Pitcher a.

Erotic or exotic dance is also known as stripping or striptease. Such venues require a to operate. Burlesque shows may not fall under Sexual Entertainment Venue licensing rules, depending on how they are conducted. Respondents told us that shifts are arranged through the house manager or agency. There are a wide variety of working conditions and payment methods which dancers identified as frequently problematic, including weak enforcement of the no-touching rule and exorbitant management fees. Respondents identified dancers as diverse in terms of socio-economic background and ethnicity.

This service was frequently identified by our survey respondents and interviewees. While erotic massage may form part of the repertoire of an escort or independent worker, it can also be offered as a distinct service by a dedicated erotic masseur, working with others or alone. Some respondents identified oral sex, rimming oral stimulation of the anus or penetration as part of the massage, while others did not. Based on our respondents, erotic massage appears to often be a progression from, or additional practice for, full-service escorts and independent workers.

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The literature on escorting in England and Wales including studies on the UK as a whole explores the experiences and backgrounds of both independent and agency escorts, of various genders Cunningham et al. There is sometimes differentiation between agency and independent escorts Pitcher a ; Sanders et al.

According to our respondents, those working as independent escorts are independent of third parties such as agencies, managers or pimps. They set their own prices, hours, service limitations and decide which buyers they see. Some may manage all aspects of their work; some may subcontract out aspects such as web de or ing see also Pitcher a. They offer direct sexual services, sometimes combined with other services such as BDSM, kink and fetish.

This can be a static location, or varying locations e. Many would rather share a flat or other premises with others selling sex but avoid doing so because of the risk of arrest under brothel-keeping laws.

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